Hammurabi code passage

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Code Of Hammurabi Readworks Answer Key Pdf

Code de Hammurabi, roi de Babylone. Conditions for Use of Images. Go to the artwork description. Near Eastern Antiquities Mesopotamia. The Law Code of Hammurabi is the emblem of the Mesopotamian civilization. This high basalt stele erected by the king of Babylon in the 18th century BC is a work of art, history and literature, and the most complete legal compendium of Antiquity, dating back to earlier than the Biblical laws.

Carried there by a prince from the neighboring country of Elam in Iran in the 12th century BC, the monument was exhibited on the Susa acropolis among other prestigious Mesopotamian masterpieces. This basalt stele was erected by King Hammurabi of Babylon — BC probably at Sippar, city of the sun god Shamash, god of justice. Other monuments of this type belonging to a similar tradition were placed in the towns of his kingdom. Two Sumerian legal documents drawn up by Ur-Namma, king of Ur c.

The Hammurabi Code—the most important legal compendium of the ancient Near East, drafted earlier than the Biblical laws—found its sources in these essays. The principal scene depicted shows the king receiving his investiture from Shamash. Remarkable for its legal content, this work is also an exceptional source of information about the society, religion, economy, and history of this period.

The text is written in cuneiform script and the Akkadian language. It is divided into three parts: - a historical prologue relating the investiture of King Hammurabi in his role as "protector of the weak and oppressed," and the formation of his empire and achievements; - a lyrical epilogue summing up his legal work and preparing its perpetuation in the future; - these two literary passages frame a text describing almost three hundred laws and legal decisions governing daily life in the kingdom of Babylon.

The legal part of the text uses everyday language and is here simplified, for the king wanted it to be understood by all. However, the legal decisions are all constructed in y:/01- lavori paolo/11-asl vc/esecutivo/scala/disegni/filtri same manner: a phrase in the conditional sets out a problem of law or social order; it is followed by a response in the future tense, in the form of the sanction for the guilty party or the settlement of a situation: "Should an individual do such and such a thing, such and such a thing will happen to him or her.

The principal subjects are family law, slavery, and professional, commercial, agricultural and administrative law. Economic measures set prices and salaries. The longest chapter concerns the family, which formed the basis of Babylonian society.

It deals with engagement, marriage and divorce, adultery and incest, children, adoption and inheritance, and the duties of children's nurses. Every aspect of each case is addressed, enabling the greatest number of observations to be made. The Law Code of Hammurabi is valuable first and foremost as a model, being a treatise on the exercise of judiciary power in the context of Mesopotamian science, in which the particular never governs the general.It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world.

The Code of Hammurabi

The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabienacted the code. A partial copy exists on a 2. It consists of laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eyea tooth for a tooth" lex talionis [1] as graded based on social stratification depending on social status and gender, of slave versus free, man versus woman. Nearly half of the code deals with matters of contract, establishing the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon for example. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, or property that is damaged while left in the care of another.

A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity, and reproductive behavior. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on a government official; this provision establishes that a judge who alters his decision after it is written down is to be fined and removed from the bench permanently. The code was discovered by modern archaeologists inand its editio princeps translation published in by Jean-Vincent Scheil.

This nearly complete example of the code is carved into a diorite stele [4] in the shape of a huge index finger[5] 2. The code is inscribed in the Akkadian languageusing cuneiform script carved into the stele. Hammurabi ruled from to BC according to the middle chronology. At the head of the stone slab is Hammurabi receiving the law from Shamash[7] and in the preface, he states, " Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamashand enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.

It was taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC and was taken to Susa in Elam located in the present-day Khuzestan Province of Iranwhere it was no longer available to the Babylonian people. However, when Cyrus the Great brought both Babylon and Susa under the rule of his Persian Empire and placed copies of the document in the Library of Sipparthe text became available for all the peoples of the vast Persian Empire to view.

hammurabi code passage

The Code of Hammurabi was one of the only sets of laws in the ancient Near East and also one of the first forms of law.

The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period. However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning.

While the Code of Hammurabi was trying to achieve equality, biases still existed against those categorized in the lower end of the social spectrum and some of the punishments and justice could be gruesome. The magnitude of criminal penalties often was based on the identity and gender of both the person committing the crime and the victim. The Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society: property owners, freed men, and slaves.

Punishments for someone assaulting someone from a lower class were far lighter than if they had assaulted someone of equal or higher status.Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials. Are you getting the free resources, updates, and special offers we send out every week in our teacher newsletter?

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Hammurabi's Code of Law

Internet Activities. English Language Arts. Foreign Language. Social Studies - History. History World History. For All Subject Areas. See All Resource Types. In this fun and engaging activity, the Code of Hammurabi Hammurabi's Code is used to render the verdict on six fictional court cases that students create.

Make it more exciting by dressing up as a judge as you preside over the cases that students act out! Ancient HistoryWorld History. ActivitiesHandoutsGoogle Apps. Add to cart. Wish List. Students give punishments! Hammurabi's Code! ActivitiesFun StuffHandouts. This activity is student centered and Common Core!If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he cannot prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.

If any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser. If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death.

If he satisfy the elders to impose a fine of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces. If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court, he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be put to death. If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man, without witnesses or a contract, silver or gold, a male or female slave, an ox or a sheep, an ass or anything, or if he take it in charge, he is considered a thief and shall be put to death.

If any one steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig or a goat if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirtyfold therefore; if they belonged to a freed man of the king he shall pay tenfold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death. The judge shall examine their testimony — both of the witnesses before whom the price was paid, and of the witnesses who identify the lost article on oath.

The merchant is then proved to be a thief and shall be put to death. The owner of the lost article receives his property, and he who bought it receives the money he paid from the estate of the merchant. If the purchaser does not bring the merchant and the witnesses before whom he bought the article, but its owner bring witnesses who identify it, then the buyer is the thief and shall be put to death, and the owner receive the lost article.

If the owner do not bring witnesses to identify the lost article, he is an evil-doer, he has traduced, and shall be put to death. If the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the judge set a limit, at the expiration of six months.

Code of Hammurabi

If his witnesses have not appeared within the six months, he is an evil-doer, and shall bear the fine of the pending case. There is no 13th Law because, then as now, the number 13 was considered to be an unlucky and evil number.

If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death. If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death. If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master of the house shall be put to death.

If any one find runaway male or female slaves in the open country and bring them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver. If the slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring him to the palace; a further investigation must follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master. If he hold the slaves in his house, and they are caught there, he shall be put to death. If the slave that he caught run away from him, then shall he swear to the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame.

If any one break a hole into a house break in to stealhe shall be put to death before that hole and be buried. If any one is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If the robber is not caught, then shall he who was robbed claim under oath the amount of his loss; then shall the community, and. If persons are stolen, then shall the community and.

If fire break out in a house, and some one who comes to put it out cast his eye upon the property of the owner of the house, and take the property of the master of the house, he shall be thrown into that self-same fire.

If a chieftain or man be caught in the misfortune of the king captured in battleand if his fields and garden be given to another and he take possession, if he return and reaches his place, his field and garden shall be returned to him, he shall take it over again.

If a chieftain or a man be caught in the misfortune of a king, if his son is able to enter into possession, then the field and garden shall be given to him, he shall take over the fee of his father. If his son is still young, and can not take possession, a third of the field and garden shall be given to his mother, and she shall bring him up.

hammurabi code passage

If a chieftain or a man leave his house, garden, and field and hires it out, and some one else takes possession of his house, garden, and field and uses it for three years: if the first owner return and claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not be given to him, but he who has taken possession of it and used it shall continue to use it.

If he hire it out for one year and then return, the house, garden, and field shall be given back to him, and he shall take it over again. His field, garden, and house shall not be given for the purchase of his freedom. If a … or a … harm the property of a captain, injure the captain, or take away from the captain a gift presented to him by the king, then the.

If any one buy the cattle or sheep which the king has given to chieftains from him, he loses his money.Welcome to CommonCoreTexts. You can support this work by purchasing upgraded passages, which include comprehension questions and an answer key in worksheet format. Ina large stone was found by archaeologists in the Middle East. It was covered in cuneiform. Cuneiform was an ancient writing system.

When the archaeologists translated the writing, they learned that it was a set of laws. Their discovery was one of the most important finds in human history. Hammurabi was an ancient king in Mesopotamia. His kingdom was called Babylon. He was a bloody warlord and invaded his neighbors one by one. But Hammurabi was a peaceful ruler. He wanted his lands to be ruled by laws. So he wrote a code that clearly explained the law to his people.

It listed what was against the law. It also explained punishments for breaking the law. There were laws in total. But unlike laws today, these laws were not the same for everyone.

hammurabi code passage

There were rich and powerful people called nobles. There were slaves who had no money or power. There were also many people who were in between. They were called commoners.In this lesson students learn about the first written laws of ancient Mesopotamia.

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Log In Sign up. Folder Lesson Filters. Subjects ELA Math. Clear all. The Code of Hammurabi In this lesson students learn about the first written laws of ancient Mesopotamia.

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Enter it here to join a lesson. Create a new lesson with our interactive, multi-media lesson builder. Network indicator Account services 0ms Content services 0ms Sync services 0ms v6. To Please enter at least one email address. Or send via email account:.Hammurabi [a] c. He was preceded by his father, Sin-Muballitwho abdicated due to failing health.

During his reign, he conquered Elam and the city-states of LarsaEshnunnaand Mari. He ousted Ishme-Dagan Ithe king of Assyriaand forced his son Mut-Ashkur to pay tribute, bringing almost all of Mesopotamia under Babylonian rule.

hammurabi code passage

Hammurabi is best known for having issued the Code of Hammurabiwhich he claimed to have received from Shamashthe Babylonian god of justice. Unlike earlier Sumerian law codes, such as the Code of Ur-Nammuwhich had focused on compensating the victim of the crime, the Law of Hammurabi was one of the first law codes to place greater emphasis on the physical punishment of the perpetrator.

It prescribed specific penalties for each crime and is among the first codes to establish the presumption of innocence. Although its penalties are extremely harsh by modern standards, they were intended to limit what a wronged person was permitted to do in retribution. Hammurabi was seen by many as a god within his own lifetime. After his death, Hammurabi was revered as a great conqueror who spread civilization and forced all peoples to pay obeisance to Mardukthe national god of the Babylonians.

Later, his military accomplishments became de-emphasized and his role as the ideal lawgiver became the primary aspect of his legacy. For later Mesopotamians, Hammurabi's reign became the frame of reference for all events occurring in the distant past. Even after the empire he built collapsed, he was still revered as a model ruler, and many kings across the Near East claimed him as an ancestor. Hammurabi was rediscovered by archaeologists in the late nineteenth century and has since become seen as an important figure in the history of law.

Hammurabi was an Amorite First Dynasty king of the city-state of Babylon, and inherited the power from his father, Sin-Muballitin c. Babylon was overshadowed by older, larger, and more powerful kingdoms such as ElamAssyriaIsinEshnunnaand Larsa for a century or so after its founding.

However, his father Sin-Muballit had begun to consolidate rule of a small area of south central Mesopotamia under Babylonian hegemony and, by the time of his reign, had conquered the minor city-states of BorsippaKishand Sippar.

Thus Hammurabi ascended to the throne as the king of a minor kingdom in the midst of a complex geopolitical situation. The powerful kingdom of Eshnunna controlled the upper Tigris River while Larsa controlled the river delta. To the east of Mesopotamia lay the powerful kingdom of Elamwhich regularly invaded and forced tribute upon the small states of southern Mesopotamia.

In northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad Iwho had already inherited centuries old Assyrian colonies in Asia Minorhad expanded his territory into the Levant and central Mesopotamia[7] although his untimely death would somewhat fragment his empire.

The first few years of Hammurabi's reign were quite peaceful. Hammurabi used his power to undertake a series of public works, including heightening the city walls for defensive purposes, and expanding the temples. In order to consolidate its position, Elam tried to start a war between Hammurabi's Babylonian kingdom and the kingdom of Larsa.

As Hammurabi was assisted during the war in the south by his allies from the north such as Yamhad and Marithe absence of soldiers in the north led to unrest. Hammurabi entered into a protracted war with Ishme-Dagan I of Assyria for control of Mesopotamia, with both kings making alliances with minor states in order to gain the upper hand.

Eventually Hammurabi prevailed, ousting Ishme-Dagan I just before his own death.